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Epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis that is most often caused by bacteria infection including, but not limited to, sexually transmitted infections such as gonorrhea and chlamydia. Symptoms of epididymitis include swelling, redness, and warmth in the scrotum, pain and tenderness on one side of the testicles, painful and/or frequent urination, penile discharge, pain with ejaculation, enlargement of the lymph nodes, appearance of a lump on the testicle, lower abdomen/pelvic pain, blood in the semen, and, less often, fever.
While men of any age can experience epididymitis, it is most commonly occurs between the ages of 19 to 35. The most common cause is bacterial infection. In young heterosexual men, the infections are most often caused by chlamydia or gonorrhea infections. In older men, children, and homosexual men bacteria such as E. coli are more typically the cause. The risk for epididymitis can be increased if a man is uncircumcised, has recently undergone surgery, has engaged in unprotected sex with multiple partners, or has used a catheter regularly.